Grafting is a method of vegetative propagation which consists in uniting two portions of plants so that they form a single individual.
In a grafted plant there are two parts, one located below the grafting point, called hypobiont, rootstock or pattern, which provides the roots and an upper part, called epibiont, graft or ``pua´´*, intended to form the aerial part of the plant.
The bimetallic individuals have different characteristics to those that each of the bionts would present if they were developed as individual plants.
The rootstock influences the graft in the following way:
-Effect on vigour, dwarfing or invigorating.
-It affects the precocity or delay of entry into production.
- Positive effect on the quality of the fruit.
-Confers the plant resistance against climatic adversities, drought, soil problems and diseases.
The ability of two plants grafted together to successfully produce a union and develop satisfactorily as a composite plant is called "compatibility." The opposite is of course "incompatibility," and there are two types:
-Localized: the union of tissues between pattern and graft is deficient, leaving areas without welding or with necrotic tissue. Therefore, the joints can be broken by the action of strong winds. This incompatibility can be avoided by using intermediate wood.
-Translocated: this includes the cases in which the incompatibility is not overcome with the insertion of an intermediate wood. Connections are mechanically strong and there are no defects of welding, but there is a rejection between pattern and graft that restricts the movement of carbohydrates, which accumulate in the upper part of the joint and decrease in the lower part.
There are many types of grafts, which are classified into three groups:
-Of bud: 1. Shield
-``Pua´´*: 1. Double-tongue English
-For approach: that is, by the union of two trunks or branches. Being able to be lateral or terminal.
In this case we focus and we show you in the video the double-tongue English graft.
- Double-tongue English graft: it is a good method especially for grafting relatively small material, from 0.5 to 2.5cm of diameter. When done properly, it is very successful, since there is considerable contact between both cambial surfaces, which influences a better passage of nutrients, establishing a good vascular connection between pattern and graft. Another feature is that it heals quickly. It is preferable that both the rootstock and the ``pua´´ have the same diameter so that the contact between both parts is perfect. The barb can have from one to three buds, making the graft in the internodal area below the lower bud. internodal area below the lower bud.
To graft the vine, we use this technique when the bud is awake, in early spring.
It can be used in any variety of pattern, R-110, P-1103, Richter, Fercal, Rupestris Du Lot, R-140, etc. and also in any variety of graft, grape for white wine (Airén, Alarije, Chardonnay, Macabeo, Moscatel Alejandría, Moscatel Italia, Pardina, Pedro Ximénez, Sauvignon Blanc ...), as red wine (Bobal, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Merlot, Monastrell, Syrah, Pinot Noir, Tempranillo ...), as table grape (Red Globe, Crimson, Cardinal, Aledo, Victoria, Superior, Michelle Paglieri ...).
For us it is a very efficient grafting technique and which we have a high percentage of successes, and although it is more expensive than the typical grafts of vineyard nurseries, such as grafting on omega, we value its efficiency and we bet for this technique of double-tongue english graft.
*``Pua´´: piece of stem of a plant that gets into another to make a graft